First, I declare my naïveté in linguistics, which (I readily admit) might affect the writing quality of my questions. However, I've been self-learning linguistics; my love of etymology inspirits me to read the books recommended herein and on Reddit.
I hereby permit any benefactor to edit my posts (no need to ask me first).
Please beware that downvotes wound many others, and not only me; I request the following for commenters' (and NOT only my) sake. In comments under the questions below, many commenters have volunteered helpful advice and insight into my questions. Because even just 1 downvote can induce deletion, whenever one downvotes my question, one perforce causes the deletion, removal, and banishment of all these priceless comments that can help so many readers. So:
1. downvoters of my questions: I implore you please to cease downvoting, and to help me improve my questions instead. I hope that your intent is not to ail or torment the commenters and anyone who benefits from these questions.
2. others who didn't downvote my questions: would you please consider upvoting simply to cancel or neutralise the downvotes and their noxious consequences? Thank you effusively.
Would the following please be undeleted? Questions downvoted without sound explanation, but with helpful comments, in increasing temporal order: